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RIHA Journal Style Guide


Length: Preferred article length is between 20,000 and 40,000 characters (including footnotes and spaces). In exceptional cases, we also accept both, shorter and more comprehensive articles, or articles including appendices.

Subheadings: Please structure your text by subheadings of one level.

References: Notes and bibliographic references should be given in footnotes (not in endnotes). Please use your software's built-in footnotes feature. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ...).

Illustrations: The number of illustrations should not exceed 15 per article. If you wish to include media other than images (e.g., audio or video files), please contact the managing editor at the ZI in Munich. Please include references to the illustrations in the main text (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.).


Electronic Formatting of Manuscripts

Texts should be saved as WORD documents (*.doc).

Do not use your software's automatic hyphenation feature, and do not manually hyphenate words at the end of lines.

To emphasize words, use italics.
Use italics also for foreign language terms, and for titles (of, e.g., works of art or exhibitions).

Use straight quotation marks ("") instead of curled (“”, „“) or French («») quotation marks.

Do not use underlines and bold letters.

Do not include additional blank lines between paragraphs.

Please use as little formatting as possible! We strongly prefer plain standard text without any extras. It suffices to mark subheadings and longer quotes.



All references should be given in footnotes.

Give full information (see below) when citing a source for the first time.
For subsequent appearances, use a short form: last name of author, title (without subtitle), page number(s) (e.g., Frey, Toulouse-Lautrec, 65, or Prussin, "Judaic Threads", 340).
Do not use "op. cit." or "ibid."

Do not use "f."/"ff." or "seq."/"seqq." but give the exact range of pages (page spread).
Do not abbreviate page numbers: Give page spreads as, e.g., 111-119 (not: 111-9).
Separate page numbers by hyphens (-), not by dashes (–): 1-3 (not: 1–3).

For places of publication, use the geographic names as given in the cited source.

However, for bibliographic terminology, use the language of your article:

English French German Italian Spanish
ed./eds. éd. Hg. ed. ed.
ed. éd. hg. v. ed. ed.
trans. trad. übers. trad. trad.
vol./vols. vol. Bd./Bde. vol. vol.


One Author/Editor
1. Julia Frey, Toulouse-Lautrec. A Life, New York 1994, 396.
2. Honoré de Balzac, Gillette or The Unknown Masterpiece, trans. Anthony Rudolf, London 1988, 11-12.
3. Penelope Murray, ed., Genius. The History of an Idea, Oxford 1989.

Two Authors/Editors
4. Svetlana Alpers and Michael Baxandall, Tiepolo and the Pictorial Intelligence, New Haven 1994, 32.
5. Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, eds., The Language of Art History, Cambridge 1991.

Three Authors/Editors
6. Raymond Klibansky, Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl, Saturn und Melancholie. Studien zur Geschichte der Naturphilosophie und Medizin, der Religion und der Kunst, trans. Christa Buschendorf, 4th ed., Frankfurt am Main 2001.
7. Edward Bispham, Thomas Harrison and Brian A. Sparkes, eds., The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome, Edinburgh 2006.

Four or More Authors/Editors
8. Hal Foster et al., Art Since 1900. Modernism, Antimodernism and Postmodernism, London 2004.
9. Karlheinz Barck et al., eds., Ästhetische Grundbegriffe. Historisches Wörterbuch in sieben Bänden, Stuttgart 2000-2005.

Monographs in Series
10. Luisa Gallioto, Frank Löbbecke and Matthias Untermann, eds., Das Haus "Zum roten Basler Stab" (Salzstraße 20) in Freiburg im Breisgau, Stuttgart 2002 (= Forschungen und Berichte der Archäologie des Mittelalters in Baden-Württemberg, 25).

Exhibition Catalogues
Include the abbreviation "exh. cat." / "Ausst.kat." / "cat. exp." / "cat. mostra" between title and place, separated by commas. If no editor name is available, begin with the catalogue's title.
11. Michael Tooby, ed., The true North: Canadian Landscape Painting, 1896-1939, exh. cat., London 1991.
12. Balthasar Neumann. Leben und Werk. Gedächtnisschau zum 200. Todestage, Ausst.kat., Würzburg 1953.


Journal Article
13. Labelle Prussin, "Judaic Threads in the West African Tapestry: No More Forever?", in: The Art Bulletin 88 (2006), 328-353, here 350.

Article in an Anthology
14. Richard Shiff, "Cézanne’s Physicality. The Politics of Touch", in: The Language of Art History, ed. Salim Kemal and Ivan Gaskell, Cambridge, Mass. 1991, 129-180.
15. Ernst Müller, "Mythisch, Mythos, Mythologie," in: Ästhetische Grundbegriffe. Historisches Wörterbuch in sieben Bänden, hg. v. Karlheinz Barck et al., Bd. 4, Stuttgart 2002, 309-346.

Book Review
16. Eileen John, review of Art, Emotion and Ethics, by Berys Gaut, in: British Journal of Aesthetics 49 (2009), 185-188.

Electronic Sources

Basically, electronic sources should be cited like printed sources; in addition, include the URL and the date of access (in parentheses) at the end of the citation. If available, between the journal name and the URL also include the date of publication [in square brackets].

17. Therese Dolan, "En garde. Manet's Portrait of Emilie Ambre in the Role of Bizet's Carmen", in: Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 5 (2006), (accessed 22 June 2009).

18. William Vaughan, "History of Art in the Digital Age. Problems and Possibilities", in: zeitenblicke 2 (2003), Nr. 1 [8 May 2003], (accessed 22 June 2009).



Formatting: Quotations longer than three lines should be set as a separate paragraph.

Ellipses and Interpolations: Any modifications by the author (such as interpolations, ellipses, use of Capital instead of small letters, etc.) must be in square brackets [ ].
Ellipses are indicated by three dots in square brackets […].
When dropping or interpolating words or phrases within a sentence, leave a space before and after the square brackets. Example: According to Cavell, "[t]he task of the modern artist […] is to find something he can be sincere and serious in […]."

"Emphasis added": When an emphasis is your addition, and not in the original, please indicate [emphasis added] at the end of the reference.

Translations: Include "my translation" in the relevant note, or, if you are responsible for most of the translations in your text, add at the head of the notes: "Unless otherwise indicated, translations are mine".
Quotations in non-CIHA languages (i.e., quotations which are not in English, French, German, Italian, or Spanish) should be translated into the language of your article, unless the significance of the quotation will be lost. The original text may be included in a note.



Date formats: RIHA Journal takes into account national peculiarities while aiming at avoiding ambiguities. That is, depending on the language of your article, give dates as in the following example (e.g., when citing online sources): 






 7 January 2003

 7 janvier 2003

 7. Januar 2003

 7 gennaio 2003

 7 enero 2003

Time spans: Use hyphens (-), not dashes (–), for indicating time spans, e.g., 1870-1920 (not: 1870–1920).




The image files should preferably be JPEGs (*.jpg) with 72 dpi.

Please deliver separate image files, numbered according to the intended sequence of illustrations in the text, with 72 dpi and a maximum length of 1600 pixels for landscape format resp. a maximum heigth of 1300 pixels for portrait format (these are destined to the menu item "illustrations").

In addition, please insert the intended illustrations (with captions) into your text manuscript with 72 dpi and a maximum of 700 pixels for the longer side length.


Captions should include, in the following order:
Fig. 1: Artist, title (in italics), date, medium/support, metric dimensions. Name of collection, city of collection, other collection information such as "gift of …," accession number (copyright or credit-line information in parentheses)

There is no terminal period, unless the basic caption information is followed by a descriptive sentence.

Credit lines should include all elements specified in the letter(s) of permission from the rights holder, institution, and/or photographer. Captions must distinguish clearly between a copyright in an artwork and a copyright in a photograph of an artwork (where the artwork may or may not be in the public domain). A copyright notice and/or the © symbol should only be included when requested by a lender. If you use a scan from, e.g., a catalogue, this must also be clearly indicated, and the exact reference, including the page number, must be given (such as "Reprod. from: ..., p. x").

RIHA Journal is aware that captions may diverge, depending on which data are relevant, available, or requested by the rights holder.

Examplary Captions - Architecture
Fig. 1: Parthenon, Athens, east frieze, detail (photograph provided by the author)

Examplary Captions - Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, Photographs, Installations
Fig. 2: Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, ca. 1482, tempera on panel, 2.03 x 3.15 m. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (photograph provided by Scala / Art Resource, NY)
Fig. 3: Roman sarcophagus, Death of Meleager, 3rd century CE, detail. Musée du Louvre, Paris (photograph © James Smith, Rome)
Fig. 4: Tsuchida Bakusen (1887-1936), Hair (Kami), 1911, hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 80 x 85.5 cm. Kyoto City University of Arts, University Art Museum
Fig. 5: Albrecht Dürer, Mocking of Christ, woodcut with verses by Benedict I Cheldonius, title page of Passio domine nostri Jesu ... (the Large Passion), Nuremberg, 1511. British Museum, London (photograph © the British Museum)
Fig. 6: Alfred Stieglitz, Equivalent, 1925-27, gelatin silver print, 11.7 x 9.2 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, anonymous gift (© 2009 Estate of Alfred Stieglitz / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York)
Fig. 7: Bruce Nauman, Clown Torture, 1987, four color video monitors, four speakers, four laserdisc players, two video projectors, four laser discs (color, sound). Lannon Foundation, Los Angeles (photograph © 2001, The Art Institute Chicago)

Examplary Captions - Performance Art
Fig. 8: Oskar Schlemmer, scene from Slat Dance, 1927. Oskar Schlemmer Archiv, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (photograph provided by Tut Schlemmer)

Examplary Captions - Video Art
Fig. 9: Still from Linda Montano, Mitchell’s Death, 1978, 22 min. 30 sec., b/w, sound. Video Data Bank, Chicago

Copyright Issues

Please note: The following is only a Quick Guide. For details, please carefully read the full RIHA Journal Copyright Guidelines.

It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to reproduce copyright-protected material in her/his article.

Please be aware that both works of art and photographs of works of art may be under copyright.

Written permissions have to be obtained before publication of the article. Authors are strongly encouraged to procure images and permissions as early as possible. Please be aware that tracing copyright holders and obtaining permission for image use can be time-consuming.

Authors are asked to send a signed declaration to the Managing Editor of RIHA Journal that permission for image use has been obtained before giving their Permission to Publish. A prepared declaration form is available here.

Any costs incurred for the article, including photography and permissions expenses, are to be paid by the author. In rare cases, license fees to be paid to collecting societies may be paid by RIHA (see the detailed Copyright Guidelines).

In order to avoid problems (and costs) connected to licenses and copyright permissions, we strongly recommend using – whenever possible – material that is not under copyright and to which no license fees apply.

Due to the location of the journal's server, the German Copyright Act (Urheberrechtsgesetz, UrhG) applies.

This includes, e.g., that copyright protection for a work of art expires 70 years after the death of the artist. Copyright protection for photographs of two-dimensional works of art expires 50 years after the photograph's publication. If the photograph is of a tri-dimensional work such as a sculpture or architecture, the photograph counts as a work of art in its own right; hence copyright protection expires only 70 years after the death of the photographer.

For further details, esp. regarding the right to use images of works of art within scholarly publications for free, please see the detailed RIHA Journal Copyright Guidelines.

The relevant collecting society in Germany, responsible for copyright protection and licensing, is VG Bild-Kunst.

(Last updated: 2 February 2016)